Cytotoxicity investigation of a new hydroxyapatite scaffold with improved structural design
Čolović, Božana M.
Jokanović, Vukoman R.
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Introduction Biodegradable porous scaffolds are found to be very promising bone substitutes, acting as a temporary physical support to guide new tissue regeneration, until the entire scaffold is totally degraded and replaced by the new tissue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate cytotoxicity of a synthesized calcium hydroxyapatite-based scaffold, named ALBO-OS, with high porosity and optimal topology. Methods The ALBO-OS scaffold was synthesized by the method of polymer foam template. The analysis of pore geometry and scaffold wallstopography was made by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The biological investigations assumed the examinations of ALBO-OS cytotoxicity to mouse L929 fibroblasts, using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor (MU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) tests and inverse phase microscopy. Results The SEM analysis showed high porosity with fair pore distribution and interesting morphology from the biological standpoint. The bi...ological investigations showed that the material is not cytotoxic to L929 cells. Comparison of ALBO-OS with Bio-Oss, as the global gold standard as a bone substitute, showed similar results in MTT test, while LDH test showed significantly higher rate of cell multiplication with ALBO-OS. Conclusion The scaffold design from the aspect of pore size, distribution, and topology seems to be very convenient for cell adhesion and occupation, which makes it a promising material as a bone substitute. The results of biological assays proved that ALBO-OS is not cytotoxic for L929 fibroblasts. In comparison with Bio-Oss, similar or even better results were obtained.