Biological Aspects of Application of Nanomaterials in Tissue Engineering
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Millions of patients worldwide need surgery to repair or replace tissue that has been damaged through trauma or disease. To solve the problem of lost tissue, a major emphasis of tissue engineering (TE) is on tissue regeneration. Stem cells and highly porous biomaterials used as cell carriers (scaffolds) have an essential role in the production of new tissue by TE. The cellular component is important for the generation and establishment of the extracellular matrix, while a scaffold is necessary to determine the shape of the newly formed tissue and facilitate migration of cells into the desired location, as well as their growth and differentiation. This review describes the types, characteristics and classification of stem cells. Furthermore, it includes functional features of cell carriers - biocompatibility, biodegradability and mechanical properties of biomaterials used in developing state-of-the-an scaffolds for TE applications, as well as suitability for different tissues. Moreover,... it explains the importance of nanotechnology and defines the challenges and the purpose of future research in this rapidly advancing field.